Healthcare expenditures vary fourfold across the globe, from less than 5% to nearly 20% of a nation’s gross domestic product. Higher levels of spending, however, have not necessarily produced better results, suggesting that some healthcare systems are more efficient than others. These observations have led to various efforts to improve the efficiency of care systems.

Written by Kim Erwin, assistant professor, communication design methods, Jerry A Krishnan, associate vice chancellor for population health.